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Below you will find a series of links that we find provide useful background to the concept of responsible extraction of natural resources.




The Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO) is a grouping of representatives of organisations that are responsible for developing mineral reporting codes and guidelines in nations including: Australasia (JORC), Brazil (CBRR), Canada (CIM), Chile (National Committee), Colombia (CCRR), Europe (PERC), India (NACRI), Indonesia (KOMBERS _ KCMI), Kazakhstan (KAZRC), Mongolia (MPIGM), Russia (NAEN), South Africa (SAMREC), Turkey (UMREK) and the USA (SME).


The similarity of the various national reporting codes and guidelines has enabled CRIRSCO to develop an International Minerals Reporting Code Template, This can act as a "core code and guidelines" for any country wishing to adopt its own CRIRSCO-style reporting standard, after including provisions for country-specific requirements such as those of a legal and investment regulatory nature.



NI 43-101 - CIM (Canada)-

On November 29, 2019 CIM Council adopted the 2019 CIMVAL Code which supersedes the 2003 Standards. This Code for the Valuation of Mineral Properties is an update and evolution of the 2003 CIMVal Standards and Guidelines. The 2019 CIMVAL Code reflects domestic and international valuation best practice, and recognizes regulatory developments. The CIMVAL Committee is part of an umbrella organization of valuation standards groups called the International Mineral Valuation Committee (IMVAL).

PERC (European) -

PERC (Pan-European Reserves & Resources Reporting Committee) is the organisation responsible for setting standards for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources, and mineral reserves by companies listed on markets in Europe. PERC is the European equivalent of JORC in Australasia, SAMREC in South Africa, and similar reserves standards bodies elsewhere, and is a constituent member of the Committee For Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO -


The PERC Reporting Standard is fully aligned with the CRIRSCO Reporting Template. PERC is established formally as a not-for-profit organisation ('asbl') registered in Brussels by its four founding professional organisations. Representation on PERC covers major and junior mining sectors, industrial minerals, aggregates, coal, the investment and financial community and professional accreditation organisations. 



JORC (Australasia) -


The Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves (‘the JORC Code’) is a professional code of practice that sets minimum standards for Public Reporting of minerals Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves.


The JORC Code provides a mandatory system for the classification of minerals Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves according to the levels of confidence in geological knowledge and technical and economic considerations in Public Reports. Public Reports prepared in accordance with the JORC Code are reports prepared for the purpose of informing investors or potential investors and their advisors. The JORC Code has been incorporated in the Listing Rules of the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges, making compliance mandatory for listing public companies in Australia and New Zealand. The 2012 edition is available for download here.



SAMREC (South Africa) -

The South African Code for the Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (the SAMREC Code, or the Code) sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for Public Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves in South Africa. It has been drawn up by the SAMREC Committee (previously the SAMREC Working Group) of the SAMCODES Standards Committee (SSC) under the joint auspices of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM) and the Geological Society of South Africa (GSSA).


The Code aims to contribute to earning and maintaining the trust of investors and other interested parties by promoting high standards of reporting of mineral deposit estimates (Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves) and exploration progress, i.e. Exploration Results.



The 2017 SME Guide for Reporting Exploration Results, Mineral Resources, and Mineral Reserves has been adopted by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME) and is therefore strongly recommended to be used by members of this organization.


The Guide is recommended as a minimum standard for reporting Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves for public and private purposes. In terms of the Guide, Public Reports are reports prepared for the purpose of informing investors or potential investors and their advisers on Exploration Results, Mineral Resources or Mineral Reserves.


CBRR (Brazil) -

The Brazilian Commission for Resources and Reserves (“CBRR” – Comissão Brasileira de Recursos e Reservas) has been established in 2015 conceived by the initiative from three of the most important and representative associations within the Brazilian mineral sector: Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa Mineral (“ABPM” – Brazilian Association of Mineral Exploration Companies), Agência Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico da Indústria Mineral (“ADIMB” – Brazilian Agency for Mineral Technology, Research and Development) and Instituto Brasileiro de Mineração (“IBRAM” – Brazilian Mining Institute). It is estimated that via its three founding members and its associates, CBRR represents over 90% of Brazilian mining GDP encompassing from early stage to global multinational mining companies. The “CBRR Guide” outlines and recommends minimum standards and guidelines for Public Reporting in Brazil of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves. CBRR is constituted as a private non-profit organization focusing on establishing, promoting and managing efforts to promote and develop the Brazilian mineral sector. Initiatives include: best global engineering and geology practices, exploration, mineral resources and reserves reporting guidelines according to CRIRSCO standards, management of the certification process and database for registration of Qualified Professionals in Brazil.



Comision Minera (Chile) -

The Code was initially written by the Mineral Resources Committee of the Institute of Mining Engineers of Chile (IIMCh), by virtue of a Collaboration Agreement between IIMCh and the Ministry of Mining formalized in December 2002.  In 2008 it was adopted by the Mining Commission for the Qualification of Competencies in Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, hereafter the Mining Commission, as the official document for reporting on the estimation, classification and assessment of mineral resources and mineral reserves. 


This code synthesizes the current practice of the mining industry with regard to the standards and procedures applied to exploration prospects and mineral resources and mineral reserves so as to publicly report on financial instruments based on these mining assets in capital markets. These standards follow general criteria already adopted and applied in this area by countries that are characterized for their dynamic and vigorous mining sectors, as are Australia, Canada, South Africa, the United States of America, the European Economic Community, Mongolia and Russia.



NAEN (Russia) -

Based on the CRIRSCO Template , taking into account the specifics of the Russian classification system. Establishes the minimum requirements for the Public Report of mining and exploration companies. It is intended for use on an international scale for market purposes in parallel with the current system of Russian classification used for state purposes.

The NAEN Code was developed by:

  • OERN

  • NP "NAEN"

  • GKZ



The CIM website has a full list of all available codes produced by each region / country.


Responsible Mining Index -

The Responsible Mining Index (RMI) supports the principle that minerals and metals mining should benefit the economies, improve the lives of people and respect the environments of producing countries, while also benefiting mining companies in a fair and viable way.


With this in mind, the goal of RMI is to encourage continuous improvement in responsible mining across the industry by transparently assessing the policies and practices of large, geographically dispersed mining companies on a range of economic, environmental, social and governance (EESG) issues, with the emphasis on leading practice and learning.



IRMA – Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance -

The Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance (IRMA) is the answer to a global demand for more socially and environmentally responsible mining.  IRMA offers true independent third-party verification and certification against a comprehensive standard for all mined materials that provides ‘one-stop coverage’ of the full range of issues related to the impacts of industrial-scale mines.


International Association for Promoting Geoethics -

​The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) is a multidisciplinary, scientific platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of Geoethics and Ethics applied to the Geosciences. IAPG works to developing theoretical and practical activities covering a wide range of contents comprising: philosophy of geosciences and history of geosciences thinking to working climate issues and related aspects; geoethics in georisks and disaster risk reduction as well as responsible georesources management.


World Economic Forum – paper comparing responsible mining initiatives



IFC Performance Standards -

IFC's Environmental and Social Performance Standards define IFC clients' responsibilities for managing their environmental and social risks. The 2012 edition of IFC's Sustainability Framework, which includes the Performance Standards, applies to all investment and advisory clients whose projects go through IFC's initial credit review process after January 1, 2012.


The ICMM is an international organisation dedicated to a safe, fair and sustainable mining and metals industry. Bringing together 27 mining and metals companies and 36 regional and commodities associations we strengthen environmental and social performance. We serve as a catalyst for change; enhancing mining’s contribution to society.


Global Reporting Initiative  - ​

GRI helps businesses and governments worldwide understand and communicate their impact on critical sustainability issues such as climate change, human rights, governance and social well-being. This enables real action to create social, environmental and economic benefits for everyone. The GRI Sustainability Reporting Standards are developed with true multi-stakeholder contributions and rooted in the public interest.


Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights -

Created in 2000, the Voluntary Principles is a multi-stakeholder initiative that promotes the implementation of a set of principles that guide companies on providing security for their operations while respecting human rights.


Equator Principles -

The Equator Principles (EPs) is a risk management framework, adopted by financial institutions, for determining, assessing and managing environmental and social risk in projects and is primarily intended to provide a minimum standard for due diligence and monitoring to support responsible risk decision-making.


Towards Sustainable Mining (Mining Association of Canada)

Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) is the Mining Association of Canada’s (MAC) commitment to responsible mining. It is a set of tools and indicators to drive performance and ensure that key mining risks are managed responsibly at our members’ facilities.


Millennium Development Goals  -

The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – which range from halving extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 – form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions.


Responsible Jewellery Council  -

The RJC have devised a clear set of standards – the RJC ‘Code of Practices’ – which is verified through a third party, independent, certification process. Adoption and adherence with the RJC’s Code of Practices presents a pathway for companies to address sustainability best practices and align with the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. RJC is a gateway to sustainable growth for businesses.


Responsible Minerals Development Initiative -

RMI Mission: Provide companies with tools and resources to make sourcing decisions that improve regulatory compliance and support responsible sourcing from conflict-affected and high-risk areas.


MinFuture -

MinFuture brings together 16 international partners from across universities, public organisations and companies, to deliver new insight, strategic intelligence and a clear roadmap for enabling effective access to global material information.


A letter from Larry Fink (CEO of BlackRock) to CEO’s -

BlackRock is the world’s largest asset manager with nearly $7 trillion in investments. Mr. Fink’s annual letter to the chief executives of the world’s largest companies is closely watched, and in the 2020 edition he said BlackRock would begin to exit certain investments that “present a high sustainability-related risk,” such as those in coal producers. His intent is to encourage every company, not just energy firms, to rethink their carbon footprints.


Oxford Sustainable Finance Programme -

The Oxford Sustainable Finance Programme at the University of Oxford Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment is a multidisciplinary research centre working to be the world's best place for research and teaching on sustainable finance and investment. It was  established in 2012 to align the theory and practice of finance and investment with global environmental sustainability.


Principals for Responsible Investment (PRI) -

The six Principles for Responsible Investment are a voluntary and aspirational set of investment principles that offer a menu of possible actions for incorporating ESG issues into investment practice. The Principles were developed by investors, for investors.


Responsible Investing in Natural Resources -

In October 2019, an interdisciplinary group of delegates from mining, oil and gas companies, investors and other financial institutions, consultancies, NGOs and universities came together for a two-day workshop at the Geological Society of London, to explore what constitutes responsible investment in the extractive sector, consider how it might be verified and quantified, identify drivers and barriers to achieving it, and propose actions to support and stimulate its implementation.



  1. OECD: Forum on responsible mineral supply chains – 7-9TH April 2020.

  2. 2020 AGM of the IGF on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development -

  3. The Responsible Business Summit Europe 2020 -

...and many more!

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